Over the past few months, I’ve been working with Kubernetes a lot as Ayetier has been making the shift towards container orchestration. As easy as it was to create and scale services, it was a bit frustrating to see how most reverse proxy solutions seemed kludgy at best.
That’s why I was pretty intrigued when I first read about Traefik — a modern reverse proxy supporting dynamic configuration from several orchestration and service discovery backends, including Kubernetes.
Traefik is still relatively new and doesn’t fully support Kubernetes’ TLS configuration for the ingress, so it took a bit of manual configuration. Much trial-and-error was involved, so I thought I’d share the process here.
First Things First
I’m going to assume you already have a working Kubernetes cluster and have the
kubectl tool installed to manage your cluster. I’m also on Google Container Engine (GKE), so depending on your cloud provider, a few things like LoadBalancer service types may be different.
Any code I use is also in this GitHub repo, so feel free to clone it and follow along. (It’s more fun that way)
git clone https://github.com/patrickeasters/traefik-k8s-tls-example.git
Deploy Backend Services
For the purposes of this post, I made a pretty simple web service in Go that will aid in testing. You could also make your own service to display cat facts if you really want. Let’s go ahead and deploy 3 replication controllers and services from the backend.yaml file.
kubectl create -f backend.yaml
Secure All The Things
We’re just going to generate a self-signed certificate for this tutorial, but any certificate/key pair will work. Run the following command to generate your certificate and dump the certificate and private key.
openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout tls.key -x509 -days 365 -out tls.crt
Now that we have the certificate, we’ll use
kubectl to store it as a secret. We’ll use this so our pods running Traefik can access it.
kubectl create secret generic traefik-cert --from-file=tls.crt --from-file=tls.key
As I mentioned earlier, due to lack of native support for TLS with Kubernetes ingresses, we’ll have to do a bit of manual configuration on the pods running Traefik.The only real points of interest here are setting up the HTTP to HTTPS redirect and then setting the certificate to be used for TLS.
# traefik.toml defaultEntryPoints = ["http","https"] [entryPoints] [entryPoints.http] address = ":80" [entryPoints.http.redirect] entryPoint = "https" [entryPoints.https] address = ":443" [entryPoints.https.tls] [[entryPoints.https.tls.certificates]] CertFile = "/ssl/tls.crt" KeyFile = "/ssl/tls.key"
Now let’s take this configuration and store it in a ConfigMap to be mounted as a volume in the Traefik pods.
kubectl create configmap traefik-conf --from-file=traefik.toml
Now we finally get to deploy the replication controller for Traefik. I’m going to use 2 pods, but this can be scaled out as desired. I’m also using a LoadBalancer service, but you can change it to NodePort and configure your external load balancer as required if your cloud provider doesn’t natively support it.
Here are a few things to note in the pod spec from traefik.yaml, which contains the RC and service.
- The traefik-cert secret is mounted as a volume to /ssl, which allows the
tls.keyfiles to be read by the pod
- The traefik-conf ConfigMap is mounted as a volume to /config, which lets Traefik read the
- The log level is set to debug, which is great when you’re troubleshooting or getting started, but it may be more manageable if you set it to something less chatty before going into production with it.
spec: terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 60 volumes: - name: ssl secret: secretName: traefik-cert - name: config configMap: name: traefik-conf containers: - image: traefik name: traefik-ingress-lb imagePullPolicy: Always volumeMounts: - mountPath: "/ssl" name: "ssl" - mountPath: "/config" name: "config" ports: - containerPort: 80 - containerPort: 443 args: - --configfile=/config/traefik.toml - --kubernetes - --logLevel=DEBUG
Now let’s go ahead and create this RC and service in the cluster.
kubectl create -f traefik.yaml
Configuring the Ingress
Now that Traefik is up and running, we need to configure an ingress so it has actual rules. We’re going to set up 2 route prefixes, /s1 and /s2, pointing to svc1 and svc2 respectively. Anything else will be sent to svc3. The pods running Traefik are watching the API for any changes made to the ingress configuration
A note for any GKE users: To prevent the default L7 load balancer ingress controller from picking up this configuration, I set the kubernetes.io/ingress.class annotation to traefik. Google’s ingress controller will ignore any ingresses whose class is not set to gcp.
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1 kind: Ingress metadata: name: example-web-app annotations: kubernetes.io/ingress.class: "traefik" spec: tls: - secretName: traefik-cert rules: - host: http: paths: - path: /s1 backend: serviceName: svc1 servicePort: 8080 - path: /s2 backend: serviceName: svc2 servicePort: 8080 - path: / backend: serviceName: svc3 servicePort: 8080
Behold, our last configuration.
kubectl create -f ingress.yaml
Testing It Out
At this point, you can test your routes and see your shiny new config doing its magic. In my output below, you can see each service identify itself.
$ curl -k https://myhost/s1
Hi, I'm the svc1 service! Hostname: svc1-on0mm
$ curl -k https://myhost/s2
Hi, I'm the svc2 service! Hostname: svc2-i485q
$ curl -k https://myhost/
Hi, I'm the svc3 service! Hostname: svc3-iict9
$ curl -k https://myhost/lolcat
Hi, I'm the svc3 service! Hostname: svc3-iict9
Hopefully at this point you have a working Traefik reverse proxy setup. Hit me up in the comments or on Twitter if you have any questions.